Throughout this semester we have talked about the ways in which hegemony, domination, and all forms of resistances, accommodations, negotiations occurred in Spanish and Portuguese America. In his article “Hegemony and the Language of Contention,” Williams Roseberry explores the issue of hegemony is built in order to create domination. Domination, however, is never total or complete: as Roseberry argues “the dominated know they are dominated,” and “they initiate all sorts of subtle ways of living with, talking about, resisting, undermining, and confronting the unequal and power-laden worlds in which they live” (357). For this essay, I ask you to use Roseberry’s argument to analyze colonial society in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, especially in the establishment of hierarchical social, racial, and gender order (the topics we covered in the last three weeks).
In your answer, go back to Roseberry’s definition, then analyze one topic in colonial society during the mid-colonial period (i.e. racial order, rebellions, patriarchal order, gender roles, honor and virtue). Always try to identify who the “dominant” and “dominated groups” are, what the mechanisms of domination were established and how the dominated managed to counteract domination. For instance, you can focus on how racial hegemony helped in the organization of a class and racial hierarchical society, the role of honor and virtue as well as patriarchy in establishing relations of power toward the “dominated” (castas, Indians, slaves, women, children); the role of the Catholic Church and the multiple meanings of religion. The answer has to be well organized and structured. Use Roseberry’s article and at least three of the readings we discussed in class to make your argument –the selection of readings will depend on the topic you choose. Provide as many examples as possible to support your arguments. Too general or vague questions are not valid. Support your arguments with examples and evidence.

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